What happens during a heart attack?

What happens during a heart attack

Myocardial Infarction Definition

A heart attack is the layman’s term for Myocardial Infarction. The term, “Myo” refers to the muscle while the cardial means heart. When it comes to infarction, this word represents the damage in the tissues due to the inadequate supply of oxygenated blood to the heart.

It is the most common and leading silent killer disease in many parts of the world because its signs and symptoms are not obvious to the naked eye. Myocardial infarction has also something to do with the coronary arteries. 

Relationship of the Coronary Arteries to Myocardial Infarction

The coronary arteries are the responsible muscular-walled tubes which carry and transport oxygenated blood to the various parts of the human body namely lungs, blood vessels, and heart. When the individual experiences having high cholesterol, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, or diabetes, there will be a higher risk of getting heart-related diseases.

As the fatty deposits accumulated and built up around the arterial walls, there will be a restricted passageway of the oxygenated blood to pass through and circulate all over the body. In this case, the platelets will react and repair the damage blood vessels via the process of blood clotting.

Atherosclerosis is the medical term used to refer to the accumulation of the fatty deposits and other waste products. On the other hand, Coronary thrombosis is the process in which the platelets will create blood clotting to repair and maintain blood vessels or blood cells.

However, the blood clotting process will create a clump which may restrict the passageway even more and hence, it will block the oxygenated blood totally. Regarding this situation, the individual will start experiencing shortness of breath, discomfort, and chest pain then eventually lead to an attack.

As a medical advice, when you’re experiencing any symptoms that may lead to a heart attack, immediately seek a professional advice from the best doctors in U.S. to prevent the heart from further damage.

What the different diagnostic treatments for a heart attack?

1.Diagnose the Patient

a.) Blood Examination

A blood test is an important measure to determine any enzymes that leak out from your blood. Doctors will take some samples to identify whether these enzymes may affect your body or not.

b.) Electrocardiogram (ECG)

An ECG performs an electrical activity of the heart using electrodes attachedto the human’s skin. An ECG can easily depict a damaged muscle if there were abnormal electrical impulses found. The results of the ECG were typically displayed on the monitor then printed out using a specialized paper thereafter, the cardiologist doctor will read and interpret the results.

  1. Examine the Patient with Additional Cardio Tests

a.) Stress Test

A stress test is conducted when the individual suffered already from a heart attack. This examination measures on how the blood vessels and heart respond to physical activities such as walking or running.

b.) Chest X-ray

Doctors may also require the patient to undergo a chest X-ray. In this way, the doctor may read the chest X-ray to see the size of the patient’s heart and determine any fluids that surround the area.

c.) Coronary Catheterization (Angiogram)

An angiogram is an examination to view and check the conditions of the arteries nearer to the heart. A long and thin catheter will be used to inject a liquid dye and penetrated the arteries. Using the liquid dye, it makes the arteries visible in the X-ray to reveal any areas of blockage.

d.) Cardiac Computerized Tomography (CT)

A CT scan is the common cardiovascular test done for patients with heart-related diseases. The patient will lie on the table inside a machine thereafter an X-ray tube will collect images of your chest and heart.

e.) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

In contrast with the CT scan, the MRI uses a magnetic field to perform the activities on your chest and heart. It will first align the atomic particles of the human cells via radio waves. Thereafter, these atomic particles will produce signals depending on the tissues and form the image of the patient’s heart.

f.) Echocardiogram

An echocardiogram uses video images to capture the size and condition of the heart. Sound waves were usually directed at the heart using a wand-like device. Thereafter, this device is held on the chest and bounce off the electronic impulse then eventually, forming the image of the patient’s heart.

  1. Medical Treatments

a.) Antiplatelet Agents

Emergency doctors will usually issue medications to the patient to prevent the platelets to perform blood clots such as platelet aggregation inhibitors and Plavix.

b.) Beta Blockers

Beta blockers can prevent future attacks and limit the damages to the muscle. These medications help slow the heartbeat, relax the heart muscle, and decrease the blood pressure as well.

c.) ACE Inhibitors

These medications help the patient to relieve stress and reduce the blood pressure.

d.) Thrombolytics

Thrombolytics act like the antiplatelet agents but a thrombolytics will dissolve the blood clot itself to remove the blockage and main the blood flow to the patient’s heart. This is also referred to as the clotbusters.

  1. Surgical and other operational procedures

a.) Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

A bypass surgery is an operation in which the surgeon will sew the veins and the arteries affected by the heart attack. This surgery will allow the blood to pass through and circulate properly via the narrowed section created through bypass surgery.

b.) Coronary Angioplasty

An angioplasty is commonly performed after the angiogram. When the emergency doctors had already traced the blocked arteries, the doctor will now perform the angioplasty. This surgery involves a long and thin catheter with specialized balloon features that can inflate when it hits the blocked area. It will temporarily create a passageway until the blood circulates properly in the arteries and veins.